Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry Model (MPPD v 2.11)

A Model for Human and Rat Airway Particle Dosimetry

Inventors and Developers

The Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model was originally developed jointly by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT, currently The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences) and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Members of the CIIT project team were Dr. Bahman Asgharian, Mr. Owen Price, and Dr. Fred Miller. Members of the CIIT project team were Dr. Bahman Asgharian and Mr. Owen Price. Members of the RIVM project team were Drs. Flemming Cassee and Renata de Winter-Sorkina. Dr. Asgharian and Mr. Price are now with Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA). ARA’s Health Effects and Medical Response group now supports and develops MPPD.

MPPD computer model 1 MPPD computer model 2


The MPPD model is a computational model that can be used for estimating human and rat airway particle dosimetry. The model is applicable to risk assessment, research, and education.

The MPPD model calculates the deposition and clearance of monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in the respiratory tracts of rats and human adults and children (deposition only) for particles ranging in size from ultrafine (0.01 µm) to coarse (20 µm). The models are based on single-path and multiple-path methods for tracking air flow and calculating aerosol deposition in the lung. The single-path method calculates deposition in a typical path per airway generation, while the multiple-path method calculates particle deposition in all airways of the lung and provides lobar-specific and airway-specific information. Within each airway, deposition is calculated using theoretically derived efficiencies for deposition by diffusion, sedimentation, and impaction within the airway or airway bifurcation. Filtration of aerosols by the nose and mouth is determined using empirical efficiency functions. The MPPD model includes calculations of particle clearance in the lung following deposition.

Eight tutorials are provided so that the user can learn to interact with the software.


Anjilvel, S. and Asgharian, B. (1995). A multiple-path model of particle deposition in the rat lung. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 28, 41-50.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) (2002). Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry Model (MPPD v 1.0): A Model for Human and Rat Airway Particle Dosimetry. Bilthoven, The Netherlands. RIVA Report 650010030.

Download and Support

The MPPD software is available for download. To receive the MPPD software, please complete and submit our online registration form.

You will receive an email with the link to the MPPD software downloads page. If you have any questions, please contact MPPD support.

Copies of the MPPD software are also available on CD.